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翻译常用的八种技巧

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翻译常用的八种技巧
 
一、常用的翻译技巧
 
1. 重复法 (repetition)
2. 增译法 (amplification)
3. 减译法 (omission)
4. 词类转移法 (conversion)
5. 词序调整法 (inversion)
6. 分译法 (division)
7. 正说反译, 反说正译法 (negation)
8. 语态 变换法 (the change of the voices)
 
1. 重复法
汉语重复,英译时也重复;
根据两种语言各自的习惯用法,以不同的表达方式进行重复,这种重复通常是为了传达原文的生动性.
 
We have to analyze and solve problems.
我们要分析问题,解决问题。
Let’s revise our safety and sanitary regulations.
我们来修改安全规则和卫生规则吧。
Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace --- but there is no peace.
先生们尽管可以高呼和平,和平!但是依然没有和平。
Nels had it all written out neatly.
纳尔斯把它写得清清楚楚。
青青河边草,  郁郁园中柳。
    Green grows the grass upon the bank,
The willow shoots are long and lank.
 
2. 增译法
为了使译文忠实地表达原文的意思与风格并使译文合乎表达习惯,必须增加一些词语,这就叫增译法.
增词义增加虚词为多,也可酌量增加实词。
英译汉时经常增加的词有结构词、数量词、概念词、语气词等。
从增补的功能来看,可以分为结构增补、意义增补和修辞增补。
 
I am looking forward to the holidays.
我们等待假日的到来。
Much of our morality is customary.
我们大部分的道德观念都有习惯性。
Reading makes a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.
读书使人充实,讨论使人机智,笔记使人精确。
Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtle; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.
读史使人明智,读诗使人灵秀,数学使人周密,科学使人深刻,伦理使人庄重,逻辑修辞之学使人善辩。
 
3. 减译法
增译法的反面
减译法是指原文中有些词在译文中不译出来,因为译文中虽无其词而已有其意,或者在译文中是不言而喻的;
减译法是删去一些可有可无的, 或者有了反而累赘或违背译文习惯表达法的词, 并不是把原文的某些思想内容删去。
 
省译和增补是相辅相成的两种翻译技巧。省译和分为结构省译和精炼压缩。
所谓结构省译是由于英汉两种语言在句子结构上的差异造成的。在英译汉时经常省略的词有代词、系词、介词、连词、冠词、先行词等。 作主语和定语的人称代词以及做定语的物主代词均可省译。
如果把结构省译看作是消极的省译手段,那么精炼压缩则是积极的省译手段,前者明显,后者隐晦。
 
A book is useful.
书(是)由用(的)。
The earth goes around the sun.
地球绕太阳转。
On Sundays we have no school.
礼拜天我们不上学。
 If you write him, the response would be absolute silence and void.
你写信给他,总是石沉大海。
A wise man will not marry a woman who has attainments but no virtue.
聪明的人是不会娶有才无德的女子为妻的。
 
It isn’t rum for a woman to want her old husband back, for respectability, though for a man to want his old wife back – well, perhaps it is funny, rather!
(一个)女人为了体面(的关系)而要(她的从)前(的那个丈)夫回来,这并不(是)奇怪(的事),虽然(一个)男人要(他从)前(的那个)妻(子)回来,也许是很有趣的事。
 
4. 词类转换法
英译汉时词类转换的核心是根据需要将具有动作性的名词转换为汉语的动词,或者将可表示概念的动词转换为汉语名词。
汉译英时则反其道而行之。
 
For students of composition, an awareness that rhetorical patterns differ from one culture to another can help them become more quickly proficient in a writing pattern that is not native to them.
学习写作的人若能意识到各种文化在修辞模式上的差别,则有助于他们迅速掌握对他们来说是外在的写作模式。
 
In those years the Republicans were in.
那些年是共和党执政。
The music is a gas.
这音乐妙极了。
Saud was a frustrated man at that time.
沙特那时已受挫折。
Traditionally, there had always been good relations between them.
. 他们之间一直有着传统的友好关系。
This experiment is a great success.
这次实验是极为成功的。
 
1) 语言这个东西不是随便可以学好的, 非下苦功不可。
      The mastery of language is not easy and requires painstaking effort.
2) 一定要少说空话,多做工作。
    There must be less empty talk and more hard work.       
 
 
5. 词序调整法
1  发生了这样的事不是你的错。
    It’s not your fault that this has happened.
2   她,一个瘦弱多病的女孩子,以她坚强的毅力写出了一部催人奋进的小说。
    A thin and weak girl susceptible to diseases, she wrote one inspiring novel after another with her strong will.
3 一直在一旁观看的小学生们开始鼓起掌来。
    The pupils that had been watching started to applaud.
 
6. 正说反译、反说正译法
 
反说
       英语词句中含有 “never”, “no”, “non-”,
“un-”, “im-”, “ir-”, “-less” 等成分; 汉语词句中含有 “不,没,无,未,甭,别,休,莫,非,勿,毋” 等成
 
She refrained from laughing.
她忍住了,没有发笑。
She was refused admittance by them.
他们不许她进去。
An opportunity is not likely to repeat itself.
良机难再。
All that glitters is not gold.
All is not lost. 并非全失。
But all men are not born to reign. 并非人人生来就都是作帝王的。
All that flatter you too much are not faithful friends.
吹捧你的人并非都是你的忠实朋友。
Both children are not clever.
并非两个孩子都聪明。
 
Private.  闲人莫入。
Keep upright. 切勿倒置。
Wet paint.   油漆未干。
Urban clearway. 市区通道,不准停车。
Inflammables --- keep away from fire.
易燃物品,请勿近火。
No deposit will be refunded unless ticket produced. 凭票退还押金。
These visits will operate only if weather permits. 以上参观项目遇雨停止或改期。
 
If you forward the transcripts yourself, they can be considered official only if the school envelope has remained sealed.
 
如果你本人递交证件,只有校方信封保持密封才可以被认为是正视的。(误)
如果证件由申请人本人递交,则本人不得擅自启封,否则证件将视为无效。(正)
 
7. 分译法
分译法主要用于长句的翻译。
以《毛泽东选集》英译本为例,说明汉语长句的分译法。
 
8. 语态变换法
 
被动变主动 ---主动变被动
英语比汉语用更多的被动语态;
英语中用被动语态的句子翻译成汉语时,我们可根据汉语的语言习惯吧被动语态转换成主动语态;
汉语中用主动语态的句子也可根据具体情况转换成被动语态。
 
说话时,已摆了茶果上来。(《红楼梦》,第三回)
Meanwhile refreshments had been served.
 
当下茶果已撤,贾母命两个老嬷嬷带了黛玉去见两个母舅。(第三回)
Now the refreshments had been cleared away and the Lady Dowager ordered two nurses to take Daiyu to see her two uncles.
 
 
林如海已葬入祖坟了,诸事停妥,贾琏方进京的。(16)
Lin Ruhai had been buried in the ancestral graveyard and his obsequies completed, Jia Lian was able to start back for the capital.
 
至晚饭后,宝玉因吃了两杯酒,眼饧(xing)耳热之际,若往日则有个袭人等大家喜笑有兴,今日却冷冷清清的一人对灯,好没兴趣。(21)
After dinner, flushed by a few cups of wine, Baoyu would normally have amused himself with Xiren and the others; but this evening he sat all alone, disconsolate, by the lamp.
 
当下众人七言八语。(25)
By now proposals of all kinds were being made.
 
 
注意英语常用被动句型的汉语习惯译法
It is hoped that… 希望……
It is reported that… 据报道……
It is said that…    据说……
It is supposed that… 据推测……
Its must be admitted that…  必须承认……
It must be pointed out that…必须指出……
It is asserted that… 有人主张……
 
It is believed that… 有人相信……
It is well known that…  众所周知……
It will be said that…  人们会说……
It was told that…人们曾说……
I was told that…  我听说……
 

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