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汉译英翻译技巧

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一、分清主从 (Subordination)
汉语句中各分句关系比较松散,所以在动笔前应认真分析句子要旨所在。句中重点往往在后。英译时,要突出重点或主句,其他部分可分别用介词短语,非谓语动词形式或各种从句表示。
1、 没有农业,人们就不能生存,社会生产就不能继续下去。
Without agriculture, people cannot exist, neither can social production
proceed.
2、 他们一听到“反霸”就火冒三丈,这充分暴露了他们那霸权主义的蛮横嘴脸。
The fact that they fly into a rage at a mere mention of the expression“anti-
hegemony”is enough to reveal their true colours as a domineering hegemonists.
3、 有人以为社会主义就了不起,一点缺点也没有,哪有这个事?
Some believe that socialism is just perfect, without a single flaw. How can
that be true?
4、 但是,象我们常说的那样,道路总是曲折的,前途总是光明的。
But as we have often said, while the road ahead is tortuous, the future is
bright.
 
二、 选词用字 (Diction)
在汉译英时应特别注意选找与原文中在意义上和风味上尽可能都类似的词语。
1、每个民族都有它的长处,不然它为什么能存在?为什么能发展?
Every nation has its own strong points. If not, how can it survive? How can it progress?
2、树雄心,立壮志,向科学技术现代化进军。
Foster lofty ideals, set high goals and march forward for the revolution
of modernization of science and technology.
3、 我国的社会主义建设,需要一个和平的国际环境,需要一个国内安定团结,
天下大治的局面。
For its socialist construction, China needs an international environment
of peace and a domestic situation of stability, unity and great order.
4、论技术,她那时还不如我,但思想却比我高得多。
Professionally she was then not yet my equal, but ideologically she was
head and shoulders above me.
 
三、增益 (Ampification)
汉译英时的“增益”技巧的运用,有时是为了使英美人理解原文的精确含义,有时是为了遵循英语的行文习惯。
1、交出翻译之前,必须读几遍,看看有没有要修改的地方。这样才能把工作做好。
Before handing in your translation, you have to read it over and over again
and see if there anything in it to be corrected or improved. Only then can
you do your work well.
(英语行文时人称代词,物主代词用得较多)
2、她挑水,生炉子,洗东西,忙个不停。
Fetching water, building the fire, washing --- she had her hands full every
minute. (增益为了意译)
3、他们一听说有新任务,就坐不往了。
When they learnt that they’d been given a new task, they just couldn’t sit still any longer. (增加not… any longer 表示“不再”.)
4、会用就了不得,不会用就一文不值.
It works wonders when you know how to use it, but when you don’t it is not
worth a single penny. (增加连词与代词)
 
三、 省略法.(Omission)
汉语不怕重复,英语中有相同的词语常可省略,行文较简练。汉语中出于行文需要而没有实意的一些词语在英译时也要省略。
1、我们要培养分析问题,解决问题的能力。
We must cultivate the ability to analyse and solve problems.
(只用一个problems)
2、我已提前完成了任务,他也提前完成了。
I’ve fulfilled my assigned work ahead of schedule, so has he.
3、中国人民历来是勇于探索,勇于创造,勇于革命的。
The people of China have always been courageous enough to probe into
things, to make inventions and to make revolution.
(只用一个courageous enough )
4、质子带阳电,电子带阴电,而中子既不带阳电,也不带阴电。
A proton has a positive charge and an electron a negative charge, but a
neutron has neither.
 
五、转换 (Conversion)
汉语中的某些词类在英译时常常要根据英语的句式转换成英语的另一类词,更符合英语的惯用法。不仅如此,有时整个句式也要转换。
1、一定要少说空话,多做工作。
There must be less empty talk and more hard work.
(汉语中的动词转换成英语中的名词)
2、警察把那个孩子的胳臂抓得更紧了,叫嚷道:“学规矩点!”
Tightening his hold on the boy’s arm, the policeman yelled,“Learn some respect!”(句子的前部分转换成分词结构)
3、口试时问了她十个问题,她一一答对了。
She was asked ten questions in the oral exam and answered every one correctly.
(主动式转换为被动式句型)
4、语言这个东西不是随便可以学好的,非下苦功不可。
The mastery of language is not easy and requires painstaking effort.
(句式不同但意思完全相同)
 
六、词序调整。(Inversion)
每种语言都有自己的自然语序,翻译时要注意入乡随俗。特别要注意英译时强调句式的词序。
1、 这个茶会是由伦敦《泰晤士报》的高级记者约翰先生举行的。
The tea-party was given by Mr John, senior correspondent of The
Times, London.(英译时姓名在前,职务在后)
2、 我们上星期天在她家尽情地吃了一顿。
We ate to our hearts’ content at her home last Sunday.
(汉语的状语排列:时间―――地点―――方式
英语的排列是: 方式―――地点―――时间)
3、我们从来没有看见过这样光明的前途。
Never have we seen so bright a future before us.
(英语中Never开头的句子词序要倒装)
4、荷花虽好,也要绿叶扶持。
With all its beauty the lotus needs the green of its leaves to set it off.
( With 的特殊用法,表示让步,用在句首)
 
七、正说反译,反说正译。(Negation)
英汉两种语言都有自己的约定俗成的正反说法,这在英译时要时刻注意到。英语中有些词汇本身就有否定的意思,要善于利用,如 fail, without, beyond, until, unless, instead of 等;
1、我认为他不对。他昨天没有露面。
I don’t think he is correct. he failed to turn up yesterday.
(正说反译,反说正译)
2、证据确凿,毋庸置疑。
The evidence is conclusive, excluding all possibilities of doubt.(反说正译)
3、那件事没有减弱我们的决心,反倒增强了我们的决心。
That served to strengthen instead of weaken our determination.
( or: That strengthened, rather than weakened, our determination.)
4、 会议开得冷冷清清,有时甚至开不下去了。
The meetings were marked by such an absence of lively discussions that
at times they were almost on the point of breaking up.(正说反译,反说正译)
 
八、长句拆译。 (Division)
翻译时随意断句是不足取的,但为了忠实并通顺地转达原意,仔细分析后,在保持原文风格特点的前提下,适当地断句倒显得更自然有力。长句拆译时往往要综合使用学到的种种技巧。
1、我们的一般企业很少注意经济效果,广泛存在着劳动无定员,生产无定额,质量无检查,成本无核算的现象,在人力、物力、财力上造成很多浪费。
Our enterprises in general pay little attention to economic results, since usually the number of workers needed for a job is not fixed, production quota is not fixed, the quality of products is not checked and cost accounting is not earnestly practised. All this has incurred a big waste of manpower, material resources and money.
(因为原长句结尾处是表判断带有总结性的分句,所以在这里断句译较好)
2、人民的觉悟是不容易的,要去掉人民头脑中的错误思想,需要我们做很多切切实实的工作。
The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to rid their minds of wrong ideas.
(原句中包含着从一般到细节的过渡,断句分译才使译文更有条理)
3、一定要言行一致,理论与实践密切结合,反对华而不实和任何虚夸,少说空话,多做工作,扎扎实实,埋头苦干。
Deed and word must match and theory and practice must be closely integrated.
We must reject flashiness without substance and every sort of boasting. There must be less empty talk and more hard work. We must be steadfast and dedicated.
长句拆译方面对初学者来说有些偏深,故不多举例了。作为有心人认真探索是大有好处的。
以上我们探讨了如何在汉译英时把“英译汉”的翻译技巧加以利用,以求得英语行文正确与合理.现在我们要从另一个角度来分析汉译英.也就是从语法上着手,纵横结合。通过这样学习,对提高实际运用英语的能力有极其重要的作用。因为汉语的句子我们可以一目十行,怎么样地道地用英语表达才是我们“翻译法”的终极目标.
 
一、汉语中无词形变化,但仔细分析一下,我们都能明确其中各词属于什么词性。英语中词形变化很重要,名词有单复数变化,冠词有定冠词和不定冠词,形容词、副词有比较级和最高级的变化,动词有时态、语态、语气的变化以及各种非谓语动词的不同用法。这要求我们在汉译英时应该看好英语的词法与句法的统一。
1、年轻人宜彬彬有礼。
Modesty becomes a young man.
(注意动词的变化与冠词的用法)
2、鸟鸣山更幽。
It seems to be more lonesome in the mountains when birds are singing.
(形容词比较级,名词复数,动词进行时)
3、从各方面来考虑,他的命运是幸福的。
Taking all things into consideration, his lot is a happy one.
(分词的独立主格用法,冠词的正确使用)
4、使事情更糟的,天又下起雨来了。
To make the matter worse, it began to rain.
(不定式作独立主格)
 
二、汉语中存在着无主句(没有主语的句子)。英语中除祈使句之外,一般都必须有主语。所以在汉译英时,应经常推敲要选那一个词来当主语,一般可加上I, we, you, they等(常泛指人们)作主语以及加上相应的物主代词。有时也采用被动语态来翻译。
1、拾煤渣也要放聪明点儿,常常换换地方。为的不受那些野男孩子的欺负。
Even when scrounging for cinder you had to have your wits about you and shift from place to place to avoid those mischievous boys who banded together to collect cinders, too.
(用you作主语,再加上相关的代词your.)
2、真是一个钱撕成八瓣用,心里总想着怎样能够改善家里的困境。
Each single copper had to be eked out, and I kept racking my minds for ways to improve our difficult conditions.
(翻译时用I 作主语并增加相关的物主代词)
3、对革命高潮的客观条件与主观力量区分不清楚,不知道主观的群众运动对促成革命高潮到来的作用。
No clear distinction was made between the objective condition and the subjective strength involved in a revolutionary upsurge. We did not understand the importance of the mass movement, the subjective element, in helping to bring about a revolutionary upsurge.
(汉语中属无主句,英译时增添主语we)
3、 村里办了小学,开设了粮站和卫生所。
A primary school, a grain station and a clinic have been set up in the village.
(汉译英时使用被动语态)
 
三、汉语中词与词之间,短语与短语之间,分句与分句之间很少用连词。而在这种场合下英语一定要使用连词,表示各成份之间的关系。汉语的特点是“意合”,这种简洁性曾被著名的美国语言学家爱德华.萨皮尔描绘为是一种有着“合理的逻 辑性”的语言。英语行文重在“形合”.所以在该使用连词and 时决不可漏掉。其它各种从属连词的使用也很重要。
1、我们是革命战争的领导者,组织者,我们又是群众生活的领导者,组织者。
We are the leaders and organizers of the revolutionary wars as well as the leaders and organizers of the life of the masses.(连词 and, as well as 在这里一定要用)
2、小伙子走了.夕阳下,她躺在草地上等着。
The young man left, and she lay waiting on the grass in the evening sun.
(这里连词and 起了合句的作用,合句与断句相对,也是一种重要的翻译技巧.)
3、海洋覆盖了地球表面的71%,是全球生命支持系统的一个基本组成部分,也是资源的宝库,环境的重要调节器.
The ocean, which covers 71% of the earth’s surface, is a basic component of the global bio-support system. It is also a treasure house of resources and an important regulator of the environment.
(主语后面有三个并列的谓语:覆盖了…,是…,也是… .但仔细分析可看出,“覆盖了地球表面的71%”说明了一个人们已知的客观事实,句子的重点在后面。因此译文用了一个定语从句来处理前面的分句,而用谓语集中处理后半句的内容。)
4、中国在自己发展的长河中,形成了优良的历史文化传统。这些传统,随着时代变迁和社会进步获得扬弃和发展。
In the prolonged course of its development, China has formed its fine historical and cultural traditions, which have been either developed or sublated with the changes of the times and social progress.
(原文是两句话,第一句在句末提出“历史文化传统”,第二句接着加以发挥。两句话虽在内容上紧密相连,但在形式上都是两个并列的句子,互相没有从属关系。汉语行文“意合”,我们就应该用英语的“形合”表示出来,所以使用了从属连词which 把两句连在一起,变成一个主从复合句.
 
四、意译法的正确使用。
翻译过程本身充满矛盾,笔者认为主要矛盾在于意合与形合之争。根据我们现在学习的目的来看,我更偏重于意合,说穿了就是意译。因为同一句汉语可用多种英语句型表达,反之亦然。一般情况下,意思说对了就行了,那在什么情况下用意译较好呢?
(一),如果照原句的字眼直接译成英语,你又不熟悉对应词的相关的用法,就容易引起误会,这时应使用意译法,以确切传达原意为准。
1、村里的居民,全不在他眼睛里。
He looked down upon all the inhabitants of the village.
2、谁料这小子竟谋了他的饭碗去。
Who could have thought that this low fellow would steal his living from him.
3、他惹了一肚子的气,回来气的一整夜也没睡着。
Being absolutely enraged, he was much too angry to sleep that night.
4、他说“如今没奈何,把你雇在间壁人家放牛。”
“There’s no way out but to set you to work looking after over neighbor’s baffalo.”
(二)、按原文正面译出,译文语言不好处理时,可以采用反面着笔的意译法,也就是我们所谈到的“正说反译,反说正译”的技巧。
1、那赵家的狗,何以看我两眼呢?我怕的有理。
Why should the Zhao’s dog give me two glances of the eye? My fear is not
a groundless one.
2、那小女孩接受了礼物,爱玩不忍释手。
The little girl accepted the gift, liking it so much that she could scarcely take his eyes off it.
3、忽视这一点就不能掌握和运用世界上先进的科学技术成果,不能很好地解决我国建设中遇到的重大问题。
Negligence in this respect will make it impossible for us to master and apply the results of advanced world science and technology and properly solve important problems in our construction.
4、过街愈当心愈好。 礼貌是值得尽量尊重的。
You cannot be too careful in crossing the street.
Good manners cannot be too much valued.
(三)、用意译法比字面直译更能确切反映原意时。(汉语成语,俗语,诗歌翻译等)
1、山不在高,有仙则名。
Any mountains can be famous with the presence of an immortal.
2、 a),引人瞩目 b),温厚儒雅 c),抡滩上海 d),大展鸿图
a), attractive b), pacific c),swarm in Shanghai
d), very well realize one’s ambition
3、三个和尚无水吃。
Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
4、前不见古人,后不见来者。念天地之悠悠,独怆然而涕下。
Before me, unseen are the ancients,
Behind me, unseen those to come,
Thinking of this infinite universe
Alone, in my sorrow, I shed tears.
(四)、有时为了适应某种文字体裁的要求,译文只译出原作的大意。(如图片说明词,展览会上的实物介绍等)
1、 区中心大道
Plant Central Avenue
2、“跃马擒敌”
Hunting Down the Enemy
3、湄洲岛位于台湾海峡通道里,是莆田市湄洲湾上的一个小岛,面积14平方公里,人口3.5万多,因供奉妈祖的“湄洲祖庙”闻名世界。
Located in the Taiwan Straits, Meizhou Island is a small island with a total area of 14 square kilometers and a population of 35thousand. It is well-known home and abroad for the first Mazu Temple.
4、二百公里航道上,遍布着无数险滩。险滩上,江流汹涌,回旋激荡,水击礁石,浪花飞溅,声如雷鸣。
Numerous shoals scattered over the 200kms course give rise to many eddies.
Pounding on the midstream rocks, the river roars thunderously.
 
 
掌握一些常用的英汉,汉英对译的翻译技巧可以激发高中学生英语学习的兴趣。因为学了就会用,一劳永逸,简直是文字游戏。我们视之为学习英语过程中的一种有用的思维工具,不应该把它定位于教学法。毋宁说这是一种学习法,或“应付考试法”更确切。在解答数学题时,我们曾用过归纳法、演绎法、归谬法等,为什么我们在解答英语习题时不可用翻译法呢?下面有40道汉译英练习。第一部分着重某一种技巧的运用,第二部分要运用二种以上的技巧。参考答案与提示并不是唯一的。你可以自己创新,写出更美、更富有表现力的句子。愿同学们青出于蓝胜于蓝。
(一)
1、我们不是为食而生,乃是为生而食。(增益,加连词)
2、良药苦口利于病。(选词用字)
3、那大学的入学试题很难,我不知能否考取。(分清主从)
4、似乎有稍加说明的必要。(增益,加主语)
5、做人不可醉生梦死。(找主语意译)
6、中国古话说,女子无才便是德。(正说反译,反说正译)
7、公平地说一句,他一直是一个好丈夫,也是一个好父亲。(不定式用法)
8、我觉得那问题很难解决。(词序调整)
9、我们的身体和衣服都要保持清洁,以免生病。(转换并句)
10、我国向来尊重学问。(无主句,用被动语态)
11、太阳落山了,我们回家去。(分词独立结构)
12、请代我谢谢他的礼物。(选词用字句
13、言归正传,他们当天便结婚了。(不定式用法)
14、贪爱钱财是万恶之源。(转换词类)
15、他赚了一大笔钱,他母亲高兴极了。(并句)
16、他易于满足。(选词用字)
17、知人知面不知心。(无主句,加主语)
18、人谁无过。(增益,加介词)
19、不自由毋宁死。(反说正译)
20、几家欢乐几家愁。(增益,加连词)
21、他硬不肯听,要我怎样去说服他。(并句)
22、人生不满百,常怀千岁忧。(选词用字)
23、如果合算的话,我就接受那个工作。(选词用字)
24、各级领导干部必须提高领导水平。(选词用字)
25、打得赢就打,打不赢就走。(增益)
26、凭舟极目望去,远处是黛色青山和五彩斑斓的田野。(增益)
27、前怕龙后怕虎的态度不能造就干部。(省略)
28、获悉贵国遭受地震,我们极为关切。(转换)
29、这些新型汽车速度快,效率高,行动灵活。(省略)
30、使我们失望的是他不顾大局。(反说正译)
II
1、小国人民敢于起来斗争,敢于拿起武器,掌握自己国家的命运,就一定能够战胜大国的侵略。(分清主从,词序调整)
2、天下大乱达到天下大治。(选词用字,转换)
3、不学会技术,长期当外行,管理也搞不好。(分清主从,增益)
4、雷锋的形象,教育我们,鼓舞我们。(增益,省略)
5、在党的领导下,依靠广大人民群众的力量,是我们战胜一切困难的根本保证。
(转换,找出合适的主语)
6、一九四二年十一月,德国法西斯军队在斯大林格勒附近大败。(词序调整,被
动语态)
7、这充分表明我们党兴旺发达,后继有人。(正说反译,反说正译)
8、不辜负全国人民和全世界人民对我们的希望。(反说正译,词序调整)
9、对于这些人,并不发生刺激与否的问题,刺激也是那样,不刺激也是那样,因为他们是反动派。(长句拆译,分清主从)
10、人民的觉悟是不容易的,要去掉人民头脑中的错误思想,需要我们做很多切切实实的工作。(长句拆译,增益,转换)
 
参考译文:
1、 We do not live in order to eat, but we eat in order to live.
2、 Good medicine tastes bitter, but is good for a disease.
3、 As the examination questions of that university are very difficult,
I doubt if (It is uncertain that) I shall pass the entrance examination.
4、A few words of explanation appear necessary.
5、One must not sleep or dream one’s life away.
6、 An old Chinese proverb says that too much learning does not become a woman.
7、To do him justice, he has always been a good husband and a good father.
8、 I found it difficult to solve that problem.
9、 We should keep our bodies and clothes clean not to be attacked by illness.
10、 Learning has always been held in high esteem in our country.
11、 The sun having set, we went home.
12、 Return him my best thanks for the present.
13、 To return to the subject, they got married the very day.
14、 The love of money is the root of all evil.
15、 To the joy of his mother, he won a lot of money.
16、He is content with very little.
17、 We know men’s faces, not their minds.
18、Among men who is faultless?
19、Give me liberty or give me death.
20、 Some families are making merry while others are suffering from poverty.
21、 How can I convince him when he will not listen?
22、 A man does not live a hundred years, yet he worries enough for a thousand.
23、 I will undertake the work, if it pays.
24、 Cadres at all levels should improve their art of leadership.
25、 Fight when you can win, move away when you cannot.
26、 Leaning against the boat, you can see dark green mountains and gorgeous fields in the far distance.
27、 “fearing dragons ahead and tigers behind” will not produce cadres.
28、 We are deeply concerned at the news that your country has been struck by an earthquake.
29、 These new cars were fast, efficient and handy.
30、 To our disappointment, he failed to take the overall situation into account.
II
1、 The people of a small country can defeat aggression by a big country, if only they dare to rise in struggle, dare to take up arms and grasp in their hands the destiny of their own country.
2、 Great disorder across the land leads to great order.
3、 If they don’t learn any technical skills and remain outsiders for a long time, they don’t be able to do management well either.
4、 The brilliant image of Lei Feng educates and inspires us.
5、 Leadership by the Party and reliance on the strength of the masses are the fundamental guarantees for overcoming all difficulties.
6、 The German fascist army was badly defeated at Stalingrad in November 1942.
7、 This fully shows that our Party is flourishing and has no lack of successors.
8、 Live up to the expectations of our own people and the people throughout the world.
9、 With regard to such reactionaries, the questions of irritating does not arise. Irritated or not, they will remain the same because they are reactionaries.
10、 The political awakening of the people is not easy. It requires much earnest effort on our part to rid their minds of wrong ideas.
 
“深入浅出”这个成语原意是指把深奥的内容用浅显的言语表达出来,英语可译为:“explain the profound in simple terms”。翻译法学英语也可算是深入浅出。但应作别解。学习翻译法不太容易,所以要深入;但学会了之后,就很好用了,可以“浅出”。因此也具有深入浅出的含义。有点“踏破铁鞋无处觅,得来全不费工夫”的意境了.下面四篇汉语短文,与英语书面表达所要求的程度相近。动手试译一下,你一定会感到太好译了,简直是小菜一碟。恭喜你成功了!
 

大家请注意,有事要通知。十二月8日星期五下午2点在学校演讲厅有个讲座。主讲人是《人民日报》的张力先生,他准备演讲的内容是中美关系。要求大家都要出席。请认真听讲并做好笔记。如有问题要问,请写在纸条上然后传给讲演人。讲座结束后,我们要在班上讨论。
不要迟到。就这些了。谢谢大家。

亲爱的编辑同志:
我的家乡以前是个美丽的地方。到处都可见到浓密的树木和绿色的草地。人们为了建造房屋、垦荒多种庄稼,越来越多的树木砍倒了。几乎整座森林随着岁月的流逝而遭毁灭。逐渐形成了这种情况,青山变成荒地,河流干涸。结果沙尘暴时时侵袭我们的家园,我们深受其害。所以我多么希望全民应该体会到没有保护环境而产生的可怕的后果。还有,我们应该保护那座森林并多植树,不要只是为了改善生活而乱砍伐。

随着迈进电脑时代,我们感到生活上与电脑息息相关。有成千上万种电脑学习软件及电脑游戏,新花样层出不穷。
然而,不同的人们对电脑的利用大相径庭。我校很多学生借助电脑课程,学习上已突飞猛进。同样的时间里,有些学生玩起电脑游戏来依依不舍,这使他们学习上远远地落后于同班同学。甚至有些同学成了流生。
据我看来,我们应该充分合理地利用电脑。电脑能扩大我们的知识面,拓宽我们的胸怀。我们不应当埋头于电脑游戏中毁灭自己。

多亏希望工程的实施,一所乡村学校发生了巨大的变化。
以前这学校叫做李家庄小学。由于家庭困难交不起学费,大部分学生辍学了。那座仅有的危房要用来做教室。所有的教师们共住一间。操场上除了空地什么也没有。
现在情况可不同了。辍学儿童都回校继续学习。一座双层的教学楼直立在校园内。有音乐室、美术室、还有教学用的电脑室。学校的体育器材配备精良。
希望工程给李家庄小学带来了极大的利益。出自这种原因,学校改名为“希望小学”。
 
 
参考译文: I,
May I have your attention, please? I have something to tell you. There will be a lecture in the school auditorium at 2:00 pm. December 8,Friday. The lecture will be given by Mr. Zhang Li from the People’s Daily. He is going to speak about the Sino-American relations. Everybody is required to be present. Please listen attentively and take notes. If anybody has a question, please write it down on a slip of paper and pass it to the speaker. After the lecture, we’ll have a discussion in class.
Don’t be late.
That’s all. Thank you!
 
II,
Dear editor,
In the past my hometown used to be a beautiful place. Thick trees and green grass could be seen everywhere. In order to build houses and grow more crops, people cut down more and more trees. As time went on, the whole forest was almost destroyed. Gradually, the green hills have changed into wasteland and the river has dried. As a result, sandstorms struck us now and then, from which we suffered a lot. So, I do hope all the people should realize the terrible result of not caring about our environment. What’s more, we should take good care of the forests and plant more trees instead of cutting them down so as to improve our living conditions.
 
III,
As we step into the computer age, we find our lives more and more connected with computers. There are thousands of learning software and computer games and new ones are coming each day.
However, different people make different use of computers. In my school, lots of students have made rapid progress in their study with the help of computer-based learning programs. Meanwhile, some students find it hard to pull themselves away from computer games, which makes them fall far behind their classmates in their study. Some even have dropped out of school.
In my opinion, we’d make best use of computers. Computers can broaden our knowledge as well as our minds. We shouldn’t ruin ourselves by burying ourselves into playing computer games.
 
IV,
Thanks to the Hope project, great changes have taken place in a country school.
This school used to be called Lijiazhuang School. Most of its pupils left school because their families were too poor to pay for their education. The only unsafe schoolhouse had to be used as classrooms. And all the teachers shared one room. The playground was nothing but an open land.
Things are different now. All the children who left school have come to continue their studies. In the schoolyard stands a two-storeyed teaching building. There are rooms for music, art and computer teaching. The school is well equipped with sports goods.
The Project benefits the school a great deal. For this reason, it was renamed Hope School.

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